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Planning your Student’s Program Using the Comprehensive Autism Planning System (CAPS)

Planning your Student’s Program Using the Comprehensive Autism Planning System (CAPS)

>>SHAWN HENRY: Thanks, Teri. It’s an honor to be here today owe VCU Autism
Center for Excellence. Today we are going to work on and look at
a framework and tools for comprehensive program planning. This will be a brief overview of using the
CAPS model to help you effectively develop a comprehensive program plan. First we’re going to start out and look at
what the purpose of education is. Looking at special education, IDEA, we know
that all children with disabilities have available to them a free and appropriate public
education that emphasizes special education in and
related services designate the to meet their unique needs and prepare them for further
education, employment and independent living. Those last parts, the unique areas, the unique
parts of autism that we want to look at today and breakdown these
part and make sure that we are preparing individuals for
further education, employment and independent living. As we look at that we need to step back and
look at what is happening today. What are the results
that we are getting today for the individuals with autism that we are serving. Right now if we look at
adults 22 and older, 73 percent have lived with their parents in a study out of 2002. 90 percent could
not gain or keep employment and 95 percent had difficulty making or keeping friends president. Again, when we go back and you think about
the first slide, what is the purpose? What are we
here to do? This slide does not show that right now we
or in the past ten years we’ve achieved that goal. Further, if we look at the employment of individuals
with autism, 6 percent of individuals with ASD have full-time employment. 12 percent of individuals with Asperger’s
system or high functioning autism have full-time employment
as well. When we are looking at this and again thinking
about what the purpose of providing this comprehensive program planning is so needed
today in education. Another look at, and a sign of our
failure. I know it sound difficult, but it needs to
be something we are challenged to look at differently
in the future. A study of 114 adults, when we look at the
outcome, the study from 2005, the measure of outcome would be that they are employed,
engaged in educational or vocational training, living
independently with two or more friends or in a steady relationship. That is’ a good outcome. A fair
outcome would be A and B, employed and two or more friend. A very poor outcome, neither A or B.
When we are looking at that, of the study group of 114 individuals, zero said they had
a good outcome. At this point in their life, zero are saying
they had this type of outcome. Again, looking at a
fair outcome, 8 percent of those individuals said they are employed, education, living
independently or two or more friends or steady relationship. Again, 8 percent. And finally, a poor outcome. 92 percent of the individuals in this study
with no difference between the individuals with autism or considered
high functioning and those with more classic presentation. When I say this is our failure, I think it’s
something that we have to look at, step back and look at
the program we are providing, is it unique, does it prepare people for further education? To live
independently? To be able to maintain and keep jobs? So the goals and the challenges I think that
we have ahead of us are to learn the social skills
and engage in social interactions. We really need to be
targeted in how we do that, how we prepare the individuals for the future. So to gain those independent living skills,
to be understand self as it relates to centering emotional
needs. Are we addressing this in our programs? Some folks would step back and say we don’t
need to address that. We are working on the academic, only on the
academic side. We need to learn problem
solving skills, when they need to learn the arc dem I can content as well. We look at these, it’s not just
one, it’s not just the final one, okay. In looking at that, the science to service
gap, what is known is not what is being adapted to help
families, children and adults. What is key is the implementation gap. What is adopted is not used
with fidelity and good outcome for the consumers. What is used with fidelity is not sustained
for a useful period. What is used with fidelity is not
being done on a significant scale according to Fixsen and Blase. What works? That’s what we are
going to talk about today. What could look differently. We know that effective intervention practices
plus effective implementation practices make for good outcomes. Again, I put this slide back in to emphasize
that we must meet the unique need to prepare them for
further education, employment and independent living. So as we go through this process and we are
talking about the autism planning system what we are
going to do is try to look at the implementation we just talked about that is needed and the
ability to transition that. So we look at, we talk about the three tiered
model. We talk about this often today in schools. On
the left side you’ll see that there’s the academic system, right? So important that we look at that. We
do a lot of baseline, a lot of work on the academic side. If you do reading, for example, intervention
you might be looking at the Dibbles and you get a baseline of where the students are. On the right side
we look at behavior systems. What is in place across the school? When I’m often asked what systems
are we using to gather baseline data on behaviors? How do we know we are targeting and meeting
the unique needs of the individuals? We look at that and most people do not have
any type of baseline data and have not really looked at the intervention
needed for meeting unique needs of individuals. The three tiered model does not work unless
you address both sides. You must address the
academic, but you must address the behavior side. Otherwise it will fall over. You are only
addressing one side. For this program to work, you must address
both sides. There’s a short video looking at if you think
the three tiered model and having both sides addressed, the academic side and the behavior
side. Here is a young man who has successfully
transitioned and had the right experience. Difficult one, but the right experience. I’m going to let the
video speak for itself. Let’s take a moment to look at this. (Video playing.)>>NARRATOR: Finally tonight there have been
a lot of famous graduations speakers this year,
but one young man in Smith field Rhode Island made us stop and listen to every word. You won’t
know his name. You will know the name of the challenge that
makes him look down. By the way he
didn’t say a world until he was five years old. Tonight you’ll also know his American heart.>>NARRATOR: Out of all of students, Eric
Duquette may have once been the least likely to
speak on graduation day.>>ERIC DUQUETTE: It is with great humility
and pride that I stand before you as your salutatorian. I started my academic career being diagnosed
with a serious learning disability, autism. My parents were told that my prognosis was
poor in that I would end up, probably end up in an
institution. They thought differently. Today I stand before you accepted into every
institution of higher learning that I applied to. (Loud cheers and applause).>>ERIC DUQUETTE: I guess in a way the experts
were right about the institution thing. (Laughter.)>>MALE VOICE: Eric Douglas Duquette.>>NARRATOR: Eric is on his way to college,
majoring in biology. By the way he’s fluent in
Spanish, too. Every day heirs parents focused on just ten
words for up to eight hours a day. Even
teaching him sign language as a supplement.>>ERIC DUQUETTE: I want to be thank all of
my wonderful classmates who went out of their way to always make me feel wanted. All of my wand full teachers you made me want
to come to school each gay. I hope I made you all proud. I want to thank my mother and father for teaching
me that in life it’s all about the chases we
make. Thanks, mom and dad for the choices you made
believing in me and not giving up. I truly love you.>>NARRATOR: From the child who learned emotions
with the determination that some of us learn calculus.>>ERIC DUQUETTE: Never underestimate the
power of a smile. Do not allow yourself or others to be defined
by your limitations but rather abilities. Never
underestimate yourself. Congratulations class of 2010. Enjoy tonight for it will soon just be a
memory. Thank you. (Applause.)>>NARRATOR: And happy graduation, Eric. (Video concluded.)>>SHAWN HENRY: As you can see, in the video,
one of the things that they talked about was how much energy this individual must put into
learning emotions and how much time was spent specifically on that. But again for these great outcomes we must
think differently. As we go on here,
I’m going to talk more about how we develop this comprehensive program and how you can
do it yourself. When developing a comprehensive program, one
of the areas, ways we do it at the center for
autism is we use the UCC, which is the underlining characteristic checklist, the ISSI, the Individual
Strengths and Skills Inventory; the global guide from the Ziggurat model; the Ziggurat
worksheet; and the CAPS. And we use this as a flat. As we go through, this is kind of the flow
of going from unique understanding unique characteristics of the
individual to good intervention practices to the side of
implementation. Again we want a snapshot of the individual
when identifying the meaningful priorities. So
thinking ahead, looking at the future for this individual. To ensure that development of strategies
matches the unique characteristics and ensuring that they go and are implemented. So one thing we’ll find as we talk about the
CAPS is, cookie cutters are good for making cookies
and that’s about it. When we look at designing something unique
for an individual with autism spectrum disorders, we can’t take a cookie
cutter approach. We have to understand the unique
individual that this individual press. We are only going to talk about number four
today. Other areas
you can go back and I’ll give you references for the UCC, the ISSI and Ziggurat. We will talk about
the CAPS and what this means to implementing this program and we’ll go back to what fix
send says about implementation being the part of good
practices and good outcome are developed by the
implementation plan. UCC, often I have heard people say this teacher
or that paraprofessional, they just understand autism. They understand the student. They are great at that pork work. I believe what that is, they are
great at seeing the autism. They know it. For those who don’t typically see it, don’t
really understand the underlying characteristics, the UCC is
great to help all individual, all individuals working with the
individual themselves to see autism and see how it presents in that individual. So we want to look at what is below the surface. No longer can we just address the behave ‘s
we are seeing above the surface the for too long
we tried to do that with ineffective behavior plans. Now
when looking below the surface, looking at the biological and emotional needs of the
individual, the couples needs, we address that, but it’s often
the larger part that needs to be addressed. The ISSI, the wonderful tool to show the individual
strengths and skills. Again, the individuals
with autism have more strengths and skills as many as any other student are. What we need to do is be
able to harness those to make sure we are using them effectively. The Ziggurat will help us design the effective
evidence-based intervention strategies that are
needed. Again, Grossman and Navatee have done a terrific
job of putting together something that allows individuals to walk through and understand
individuals and address from a very foundational level all of the needs and with evidence-based
practices. For reference go to the national profession
at development center on autism spectrum disorders. They have evidence based practice briefs that
you can go and download. You’ll see all the effective
evidence based practices there and also you can go to the autism Internet
and there you will find modules for free online that go
right along with the evidence based practices from the
national professional development center of autism spectrum disorders. Finally what we will talk about today, the
CAPS. This is how to implement it across the school
day. When we are looking at this, here is a quick
brief presentation of what we are looking at that the
strategies will jump out at you. This is what you will see and this is what
you will receive. As a
former teacher I often receive the child’s IEP with the goals and the present levels
of performance. That one page in the present levels of performance
tells me how I was effectively supposed to — tell
me about the student and exactly only the goals I was supposed to work on. Most teachers I worked
with and in my own experience, it was not effective enough. I did not know how to program for the
individual. As soon as they walked through the door, I
wasn’t able to look at that program and say I
understand this person, this individual and I can start their programming. When we talk about today is a tool that can
help you with that, help you with those transitions of
knowing the students that are coming to you, being able to plan and make sure that you
transfer your knowledge to others as well. So why was CAPS developed? Teams were changing and each year as I was
training in the field and working with a multitude of teams, what
would happen we would get a call the following year. The team would want additional training. We would go down and provide additional training
for that team. We go into the third year. The next team would say this is really nice,
but now we need training at this level. What we found is what was — the knowledge
base that the individuals had about the student was
not effectively transitioned from one team to the next. From paraprofessionals who do incredible
work to the next set of paraprofessionals or teachers as well. Students often moved and as they move, we
are reinventing the wheel. Someone moves even
across the State, too often it takes two to three months to get to know that student and
start to plan effectively for them. Then you have those middle months. Then you start moving towards the end of
the school year. Really, in that we cannot waste the time that
we have been in the past. We need to
start effective programming as soon as the students walk through the door. Simply what works for
individual was not being shared effectively. What does CAPS do? It facilitates targeted professional development
and awareness activities. Within a school team each member needs a different
set, a different skill set, right? Everybody comes
in with prior knowledge. Not just, it might be the students they are
working with, but just the knowledge they have gained. Someone may have had training in picture communications
systems and another person may not. We are going to find out, look at the student’s
program and find out what professional development each team member
needs as well. Instead of blanket professional
development, we need to be much more targeted in that. Facilitating those transitions at the end
of the year. Making sure it’s effective. When that comes
across to the next person, we start. They understand the student. If they don’t, they ask the right
questions to the prior team. And providing structured flexibility across
methodologies. It provides the venue for individualized team
planning, combining effective and diverse strategies. So often there’s a baseline on what strategies
we need to use. And sometimes somebody will want to
come in and only use one set or methodology. It is another way for us as a team to sit
down and say here are the times for using these specific
strategies. It provides consistency of programming across
time, personnel and environments. Again we need that. It bridges the IEP and the core contradict
will you please. Too often we are not giving the full access
needed to the core curriculum to the students that we’re working with. Who is involved in working and preparing and
completing a CAPS? As you
can see, it’s the parent, guardian, general education teacher, education teacher, most
people on your team. If they can’t be in one place at one time,
it’s something we can effectively community indicate
to the team members. We are talking about framework, not paperwork. As a former teacher I
understand the last thing you need is more paperwork. There is never a team I’ve worked with or
my colleagues worked with who ever complained
when they completed this process. And they would like
the folks that have students they are receiving to also have gone through this process and
giving them the same type of information. We are going to talk about a briefcase study
of a student who we used the CAPS as the planning process with the
team and what kind of happened from baseline to the
interventions that were put in place. And then we’ll get into effectively talking
about how you can do this as well. So when we look at this, we look at the CAPS. We have time and activity at the top. Skills to
teach, structure, reinforcement, sensory strategies, social communication, data and generalization. Obviously you can read those across the top. We’ll show you how to effectively do this
and broaden a student’s program. We are going to develop the skills to teach
based on state standards, IEP goals and if you’re using Ziggurat, use the
Ziggurat interventions you’ve developed. Here is Ginny. Ginny, one of the students we worked with
in the past had a wonderful team around her. She had, working diligently, couldn’t have
been working any more hard, harder than they were. However, they felt like they weren’t on point
with exactly helping Ginny progress like they wanted to. So the first thing we did, we walked into
the school. We sat down with the team. We did a
baseline with Ginny’s team. To do a baseline, we are going to look at
the current program. So the
UCC would have looked at the skills and underlying characteristics of Ginny. What we need to look
at with the baseline CAPS, what does your present program look like? You need to get a good picture
of what you have in place so that you can effectively create a different future and
a different program. So we walked in and we saw that Ginny, her
first activity was a group activity in art. They are
working on independent fine motor schools and reciprocal interest actions with peers. What they
didn’t realize was that the structure modifications they had in place were one-on-one assist with
the paraprofessional and assistant. They modified a project for her and she would
sit at the end of the table. These are some of the things they were doing
with general Ginny in her baseline. Her
reinforcement was verbal praise. This he were only giving her praise, kind
of verbally and that was it. We were kind of looking at that and taking
some data and seeing that that was not effectively modifying her behavior. They were using no sensory strategies at the
time. Communications and social skills, she was
following the general education classroom rules at that time. So again nothing was modified. And
they were only placed in the classroom just like for all the other students. Her data collection was just complete the
project and her plan for general education was to take
that and go into art class. From 9:35 to 10:00 o’clock a.m. she had small
group reading, active listening, identifying letters an words and
answering questions. She had one-on-one assistant, but
using physical prompts, some letter cards and sometimes pointing to the prompt that
she needed. Again this is Ginny’s baseline. One of the more difficult thing that they
had to address in the program is really looking at, so as you go
to develop a program in the future, be sure that you sit down
with the team and do a walk-through. We are going to talk more about how do you
do a baseline walk through as well. In looking at Ginny’s day and changing her
program, I’m going to move through exactly what
happened after the process was complete. Ginny would start her day at 7:30. This is when she would
actually arrive at school. So taking advantage of the time that she got
out of the car instead of waiting until she was actually in the classroom, recognize
that she would transition from the car to breakfast. The targeted skills we wanted to teach was
choose breakfast using a breakfast board, using an
interactive language board and independent use of her schedule. Again, Ginny was not being given her schedule
until she actually entered the classroom. We are
making sure that she had that right away and was using that independently. Again, go back and look
at your program and see if you’re using any kind schedule with the student. No matter, picture based,
trapper, planner with the other students. Is it used independently by the student? So what we are
starting again at 7:30, she walks in and then goes to breakfast. We are looking at structure
modifications. We had a choice board of the breakfast items,
an interactive board that Ginny could use and a visual schedule there. The reinforcement was the choice of food. Sensory strategies, she
didn’t need any in the cafeteria. We didn’t see, food smells didn’t bother her,
the noise wasn’t bothering her at the time, not that we could
see. Communication strategies and social skills. We wanted to have additional social language
on the board for greetings and questions by peers
and for her to ask for things. And we worked on table manners. Again was it on the IEP? No, it didn’t have to be, but we
wanted to know that we could work on that to think about the purpose of education and
the long view, living independently and having independent
living skills as well. So that was part of it. The data collection was her choice. So we would use a sheet for that and for the
natural language board we would take down what pictures she
would use across that. The plan for generalization was
to use the board during lunch or at home. Again we were going to teach an transition
that to home and help the family. So as she moved into the general education
classroom, Jenny was only included in the classroom
day when we walked if before we worked on the CAPS with her for about two hours. This was during
breakfast, lunch and during specials. Okay? During those times Ginny was doing fine at
breakfast and lunch, but she had no interaction with
peers. Basically was just eating alone and with her
paraprofessional. In the future and in specials she was having
a very difficult time with the noise as well, the noise
level and the pace of the activity. So we needed to look at those. That was the only time she was
included. She was in the resource room about four hours
a day. Through this process we were able to
transition that she was included four hours a day and outside the classroom two hours
a day. Effectively working on academics. So at 8:05 Ginny would walk into her classroom
an she would work on independent work. So things she worked on in the resource room. She brought in her master
math problems and she would self monitor her with those. I’ll show you those in just a moment. She
had visuals to help break the task down for her. She had a visual focusing aid to use. She would
complete five problems, have a break and get a choice. There was black paper brown down for the
sensory area so she wouldn’t have to see all the problems at once. She would follow all the classroom
rules and make sure they broke those down and had those around on her desk. Another part of the
independent work, she would work on reviewing lunch choices for others. I’ll talk about that here in a
moment. Use of self monitoring sheets and the percent
of independent use. We were really wanting
Jenny to help us with the data collection, if you will. She was doing that by self monitoring and
a data sheet for the transition she was making. Ginny also started to do lunch count. Often at the beginning, the team was not sure
that Ginny could do this: What they were going to do
is have Ginny do that. She would chart lunch count and
she would collect and organize the data. I have SS there. That’s how we noted that was a State
standard. So we wanted to start to look at how we are
going to monitor and know that she’s working on some of the core content. Following two and three-step directions was
also a State standard for oral directions and she
would do that. She primed for than and had a trained peer
buddy. We had reinforcement from peers
as a strategy, sticky string for graphing on her sheet and I’ll show you pictures of
all these. There is
Ginny’s desk when she would arrive in the morning. She would have five problems to work on. See
that, one, two, three, four, five. Raise your hand and you receive the choice. Off of your choice
board. She would use the blue pen in the right-hand
side corner to mark off each of the finished math
problems. Then you can see the finish box at the end
was for putting in the pencil. That was her work
for the morning. Ginny would complete these math problems. These were mastered problems we brought from
the resource room that they had worked on. She was using touch math or dot math. And you would see
that she was using a visual focussing aid. So she didn’t have to see all the problems
at once. Sometimes she would jump around the page. We used this to keep her from going too much
and also not skipping problems. So prior to this, Ginny was going directly
to the resource room and some of the, actually just
doing some kind of boxed activities just with the paraprofessional. Now she’s engaged in included in
her classroom working on skills that were similar to her class mates. Here is the choice board that
Ginny had to pull from. She pulled these and she could choose any
of these used after she completed her morning work independently. It was critical of errors, as you saw in Ginny’s
baseline data she had a one-on-one assistant if you will, some people
use the term helicopter around her using a lot of hand
over hand. She was especially prompt dependent. We want to make sure that we work on that
prompt dependency and remove that from her and having
her do independent work in the classroom with her
peers. These were other strategies we would use if
needed for kind of looking at the sensory side of
things. Ginny would use a slant board for writing
and wrist extension. She would clip that on the top,
complete her work and sometimes use the lifting up the notebook and putting the worksheet
underneath it as the finished box. You can kind of see the wedge there as well. We taught her to use
that independently. Again when she needed or felt she needed it
and to move around in her seat and tilt her forward, occupational therapist put
that in place. Here was Ginny’s daily schedule. To meet the one that I thought was somewhat
confusing, however we were moving her to using it independently. She would pull off the picture, put it in
the now area, after she was completed with the
activity she would put it in her finish box. Again what we are taking data on was: Was
she independent? Was a prompting level needed by
Ginny at the time? How we could make sure that she was ensure
that she was using it. We wrote
down each of the seven steps that it took Ginny to complete this and knew at each level
what her level of prompt dependency was. She would go through an here is the lunch
count and lunch prep organizing that I mentioned earlier. Jenny will ask her peers if they have a lunch
by holding up the lunch choice. When we started this program with Ginny, Ginny
was using the picture exchange assumption program. However, they started it in first grade but
they had not transitioned it much into second grade. She was only using it for about three items
she was asking for. One was bathroom and one was
lotion she could have for her hands that she liked to put on her hands. And those were really the major two activities
that she would ask for. So Ginny mean length of utterance was at the
moment about one in her baseline. What she would
do, she would get up in front of the class and hold up a picture. Might be a picture of hamburger or
fries for different lunches or different items for home and lunch. She would hold these up for her
peers and if she didn’t know what it was, her peer would help her. They would practice before. She
might hold it up and say hamburger and the students would raise a picture of themselves
up. Ginny
would walk around. When Ginny completed that activity, you can
see this particular day four individuals brought their lunch to school. Ginny would walk and pick up each of though
from the students. When Ginny did that, we had worked with the
peers for them to say good morning, Ginny, hi
Ginny, different things for them to compliment Ginny on. Then we started to work on interactions between
her peers. Would be of the things we often take
for granted that when a student walks in, they even know the other students’ names. Often they don’t. How comfortable are we going to be with the
interest actions with peers when we don’t know that. There were about 25 students? Ginny’s class. That’s 125 times five. Ginny had the opportunity for
125 additional interactions with here peers in her day within the first 15 minutes of
school, right? So for one school week again think of the
numbers. 125 additional. You can call those trials,
opportunities. But now Ginny is working on those. When you think about the purpose of IDEA,
what we need to do, and looking in the long view
and making sure that we have the right planning in place,
this is just a small activity that the general education teacher was more than willing to
modify. Now,
other students added to it and Ginny then could be on the receiving end of that. But we did this for
multiple activities. Again we saw the interest action, we saw Ginny
have a great change over time. These were the pictures on the students’ desks. You can see the one with the hole in it would
go up and Ginny would even look at these at times
to just look at the names to get to know her fellow
students. You can see Ginny is working with her paraprofessional
and graphing the data that she just presented that you just saw on the board. At the top of that there’s a small blue line
that is kind of the wiki stick area that she would draw. You can see her crane marking, hitting that. That would allow
her to stop. She would count the data and that’s how she
would graph the data each day. We could
then extend this to other academic areas in the future. Here is a small, a short video just about
three minutes of how we changed Ginny’s specials. As I
mentioned Ginny was going to specials and they were very difficult for her. Here are two peers who
are trained using a natural language board, Ginny. This is what they used in the future. Instead of
Ginny going to the gym sometimes or other specials they select the. We worked with the family and
trained them in using something similar. You’ll see in the short video the way that
peers are interacting with her, a natural setting for
Ginny and opportunity for her to be much more engaged with
her peers. (Video playing.)>>: I can read. (Children speaking.)>>: I can do this …
>>: I think blue …>>: Oh, right side.>>: (Off microphone.)>>: Left side is blue.>>: Frustrated is on the board.>>: I write this on the board.>>: Ginny, here is the board.>>: There’s the target.>>: Red.>>: Uh-oh.>>: Green.>>: Green.>>: No, my turn, right?>>: No.>>: Ginny, wait your turn. Wait your turn.>>: Ginny. (Off microphone.)>>: Ginny, my turn.>>: Ginny, wait, wait.>>: Green.>>: You picked blue.>>: I know.>>: Frustrated with blue. I mean, with green. Me too. (Chuckles.)>>: She won’t pick green. Ginny? Another turn.>>: Thank you, Ginny.>>: I am frustrated with green. Green. (Cheering).>>: You made it.>>: I hit green.>>: I am frustrated with green, real fast. Your turn Ginny.>>: My turn. I picked yellow.>>: I frustrated with yellow and green.>>: Your turn, Ginny.>>: Pick, pick.>>: Your turn.>>: Red.>>: Oww.>>: Ginny?>>: It’s okay, it’s okay.>>: Wait.>>: Oh, well, she got it.>>: (Off microphone.) (End of video.)>>SHAWN HENRY: Here is some initial impact
data that was taken from Ginny in looking at
the way we changed specials. Here is before. As I mentioned, Ginny’s mean length of utterance
per the team was about one. This is from the special education, the speech
language pathologist. On
April 30th, again we had been using, she had been using the interactive language boards
now for awhile at breakfast and other areas. It was up to 2.5. As they started to play the games and that
was a modified ants in your pants game that they
were having a lot of fun with. She was, per the sessions
that she was using it, 3.5 was the mean length of utterance. Direct impact, you can see the social
impact. You can see Ginny’s engagement is extremely
high with her peers. Now we are kind of
seeing the type of interaction in programming we want to see. This was only in the first two hours of
the day. What we saw when the activities were extended
in the future, Ginny then built the paper mache
volcano that we’ve probably all done in our classrooms with our students. Then was using an
interactive language board right directly within the academic setting as well. Again, the trajectory and
the change we had by looking at the program differently and how we were going to effectively
implement those strategies was something that took a whole team approach. When we stepped back,
this is the information. We wanted to make sure that it’s shared from
one team to the next, okay. We
can’t lose this. I think one of the greatest threats that we
have in education today is that when a child is
identified or diagnosed, that when we start and have effective strategies that are in
place that we are not moving those object and we don’t have
a formal way of effectively moving those on. It’s kind of
like looking at medical records. If you move from Ohio to Virginia, those will
follow you and hopefully the physicians treating would pick
up where they belong and they can look and effectively
see this. We need to have the same type of effective
programming and effective transition of that to
someone else. This is one way. Even simply receiving, take a photograph and
a two sentence description of the method that you used, the strategy that you
came up with and make sure that that makes it into your
CAPS. So now I’m going to go through the CAPS team
process. Again, just wanting you to get a general
sense of how you can start this and it might become effective for you is you need to have
the facilitator, usually a current team member
who can take the teal through and has a general understanding of the student. We want them, it could be a school psychologist,
general education teacher, the SOP, the OT. I haven’t want to stay away from the special
education teacher because that’s typically who it falls
on. I want to make sure it’s a full team approach
and it’s about the whole child and the whole team. The role of the facilitator, they explain
the whole process. I have references that give you much
more detail how to do this. They explain and enlist all the team members
and assure that the team members take ownership of the steps in this
process. We need a report recorder. So effective classroom teaching, we have someone
recording in strong clerical skills that can take down the information
that we have been talking about and the role of the
recorder is to facilitate and assist the facilitator in gathering the team information. Team members, of
course, who are going to provide that information. However, often it could be the case that the
occupational therapist or speech language pathologist, school psychologist may not be
there for the team meeting. Again, the record keep earthen can go to them
or the facilitator as well to gain the information. Often what we found is that the, for an OT
and SOP to be most effective in providing intervention and assistance to the whole team,
they need to see what the program looks like. This
allows for them to see the whole program and all of a sudden they have a multitude of ideas
for folks to implement. So as I mentioned earlier, the most difficult
part of this process is the baseline CAPS. Sitting
down and looking at the full program and where it is in its state. We typically want to jump in and talk
about all the activities and things we can do differently. We need to look at than and get a sharp
baseline because it shows us where we are and also is going to show us the program growth
over time. The daily CAPS. When I say daily CAPS, what we want to do
is, I would recommend completing a CAPS within the first month of school. So not when the IEP is developed which is
typically in April, May, and June, but once you’ve started
school and you have a Stead schedule. It usually takes
three to four weeks before we’re there and I would sit down with the team members and
effectively take the IEP and start looking at that across
time. We’ll go into that. The facilitator within those first weeks will
then sit down with the team members and they are
gathered and they’ll do a virtual walk through of the day. Sometimes some teams have actually got up
and they go to the front door and they walk in just like president student and they start
taking down the information right from that activity. We had one student they said well, get out
of the car and pick up a leaf every day. They saw that as an opportunity. Stipulations he would go by and get a drink
of water each day. Again looking at different opportunities. The virtual or actual walk through. So the
facilitator, that’s the first thing they want to get down, the time and activity for those
two columns for the entire day. The recorder will clock the times for each
activity and the team member consider the activity and the expectations during that
time. So it seems like probably an easy thing to
do, but when we really break it down, we understand that
student, we have to go through the day. It takes a little
more time than we may think. Then when we get into kind of looking at the
skills, the process really speeds up and we look at where across including
all testing activities that happen throughout the day
which the student requires support for. We have reading an math, but we also need
to make sure we are capturing the nonacademic times like recess
and lunch. Again we are taking those down and going
across with those and filling out the skills to teach. Some people like to fill out the CAPS form
by doing each, going across. Some like to kind of consider it going down
on each of the activities. It’s
really a preference of the team on which way they want to handle it. The recorder wants to make sure they get all
the objectives, standards and goals. One thing we
want to have there be side you is what is the grade level curriculum? What are the State standards that
you have as well? So make sure that you’ve gathered those materials
as we are sitting done and you have the IEP, you have all that together and
you’re working through and making sure that you’re taking
down in the skills to teach what those objectives are in each of those areas. For structure and modifications, taking into
account the auditory and physical adaptations that
might be needed. I hint in here that sometimes you look at
the teach questions. What activity am I
doing? How much of that activity do I need to do? When am I finished? And what’s next? For this block of time and structure modifications,
those four questions should be completed and answered for that student. How do they know when they’re finished? How do they know what’s next? How do we know that independently? We want to break that down. The recorder will bullet all the modifications
and structures that are in place and ideas for change. Again, consider additional strategies and
methodology that will provide greater access to the core curriculum. For communications and social, as you move
along the columns and you are looking at this and
thinking what can I do? We need to again rely on the speech language
pathologist and other team members who understand the student, but making
sure that individual has the opportunity for receiving
the information in the mode they need and for expressing during each time period. So we need the
student to express information or needs? Is the augmentive communication device needed
for the student? How does that student receive the information? Again, when we start to figure this out and
we share it across all team members we really see that students’ programs begin to change
by great factors that other special teachers resource
teachers understand how the student effectively communicates and how to also effectively communicate
information to that student. Does the student have opportunities to be
engage in with social interactions with peers in the
class? We talked about Ginny and the opportunities
with the student, 125 additional interactions during the week, you multiply that by the
180 school days we typically have and there’s probably three
or four different opportunities during the day to actually do that. So again, the recorder is going to take down
all the activities including in communication and
social skills. Again, think about the future. What are those daily living skills? What are the social skills that
the individual needs? We often find by having the student engaged
that often, that new things arise that we start to understand the student better,
but we also understand the things that are missing. We
often have created programs where we don’t allow the students to make a mistake and we
need the students to learn how to kind of recover from
that and also how to help implement. Again a better program for the student. In the data collection, we want to embed the
data collection. I understand we don’t want the data
collection that you are taking. You kind of see a form like the CAPS and you
think: Oh, just another piece, more paper and more data. You don’t want to embed it — like Ginny,
the interactions that she had, she had that many interactions with peers,
we saw those go through and saw the independence that she was using as well. The data collection match the method and the
resources available in the classroom? Again we need to kind of consider how we put
in place easy and effective methods for data collection. Again as team members come together, typically
ideas start to come up from other team members about how easy we can make this. The recorder will note all of that. Again, just
keeping that data obviously with all of the other sources of information you keep in the
classroom. And so as we move forward to generalization. Again, not enough programming of generalization. So as many of you know, we may learn one skill
in a classroom and not be able to take it right
outside the school door. We may learn something at home and not have
generalized that into school. So what we want to do, how can we apply the
skills and supports in a different way during the
day. Those may be at home. How can the student be empowered to initiate
the skill without the prompts that the student has in place at that
time. Again as we are generating those, it’s a very
dynamic process back and forthwith the team and putting that down as we generalize. Again we are
looking at this and seeing as this comes together, the program begins to fundamentally change. What
you are doing, you’re changing the practice trajectory of the possibilities of the success
for the students. We are going to do things differently but
make sure as we think about the purpose of why
we are doing this for the individuals that we are going to meet the unique characteristics. We are
going to make sure we have placed them with the opportunities for employment in the future,
place them with possibilities for further education
and to live independently. Again as we go through the
process, I wanted to kind of go through this general CAPS form with you. We will have this online
and available that you can download it and use it, print it at your leisure. Let me know if you modify
it and find a better way of doing it. We have made modifications to CAPS in different
ways. Here is a
modified CAPS system, M CAPS. We use this in middle school and high school
who are in the general education classrooms and they are
using block scheduling. We have independent work on the
left, group work, tests, and homework. Those are the areas we broke it across skills,
structure, reinforcement and basically it’s independent
work and geography, independent work in math, independent work in algebra, whatever it may
be. And that was able to really help other teams
kind of looking at this differently. Say, for example, with block scheduling. We also made transition craps,
looking at modifying this and in employment and what this would look like on the job. So we have time activity required tasks are
of a job. The need an employee training. Only — so
reinforcement, social skills, environmental supports, natural supports that are in place
already in the workplace. Again we modified in some bays. Let us know if you changed this. The form is there for
you. The resources are there for you. I know we’ve kind of sped through a lot of
looking at the CAPS and how it may effectively help
you, but I can tell you with all the teams we worked with when they completed this and
have been able to transition this on, they really feel that
over time it is fundamentally kind of changed the way that the
team who is receiving, president student, also the team who is working with it, coming
together and are much more cohesive. I left some resources for you. Here is the CAPS book actually breaks down
all the areas that we’ve talked about in social, sensory, data collection, ideas for all of
that if you want to use that. The Ziggurat model book which is again a great
way of designing a comprehensive interventions. Looking at that. A couple of the articles that are out there
that again if you need a refresher for how this works,
and some online resources at we have that archived the auto Internet modules,
I talked about those earlier. I talked about assistive technology in the
education and social area. I want to
leave you with that as well. It has been my pleasure to be here today and
have the opportunity to be at the VCU Autism Center for Excellence. Let me know if you have any questions in the
future and I look forward to chatting with you in the near future.

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