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Importance of Survival Skills

Could You Survive GHOSTBUSTERS?

Could You Survive GHOSTBUSTERS?


(upbeat music) (television):Coming up
on the five o’clock news…
Reports of paranormal activity,
and it’s spreading
across the city.
(female anchor):
Welcome back.
Our next guest believes
a ghost is living
in his light switch.
Shocking.– I’m Jake, and before becoming
a buster of ghosts,
I had two loves in my life: science, and movies. So, I decided to put myself
in one of my favorite films,
Ghostbusters, to find out
if you could survive it. Could you survive
a nuclear accelerator
strapped to your back? A giant marshmallow creature
walking through a city? Or crossing proton streams? So, give us a call
at 1-800… (all): Could you survive
Ghostbusters? I’m gonna be honest… that commercial was incredible. – I hope so, ’cause
we just spent the last
of our money on it. So, I couldn’t pay
the power bill to keep the ghost containment
grid online. I just got that ghost in there
that wants to destroy the world. The city could shut it off
at any moment… Which would be bad,
because according
to my research, we’re on the verge
of a cataclysmic convergence
of PK energy. – It’s a good thing
I’ve upgraded our proton packs. – Great! And speaking
of proton packs… In Ghostbusters,
they refer to the packs as “unlicensed nuclear
accelerators.” And well, it could be called
that because it is
getting particles from the nucleus of an atom, they are generally referred to
as particle accelerators, because they are accelerating
a specific type of particle. Protons from the nucleus,
or electrons from
the electron shell of the atom. and fun fact, you actually
do need to license
a particle accelerator. And particle accelerators
aren’t just things
like the Large Hadron Collider. There are over 30,000
in the world with some of them used
in hospitals for anti-cancer
treatment proton therapy. The accelerator uses
positively and negatively
charged electric fields which create radio waves
to accelerate the beam, and the beam is made up of… Particles. Either protons
with a positive charge, or electrons
with a negative charge. The particles begin
to orbit around the accelerator, gaining momentum
along the way. And in general,
the particles are protons, so the backpack
being called a proton pack makes a lot of sense. And speaking of… the proton pack we see
in the films has a circular
device on the back of it. A cyclotron,
one of the earliest types
of accelerators built. In fact, it was first invented
in 1930, and was used
to discover elements like Plutonium
and Neptunium. Now, based on the proton packs
from the movie, they would generate
five mega electron volts
of energy. Which sounds like a lot,
but it’s not even enough
energy to power a 100 watt light bulb,
for a tenth of a second. The ones used for proton therapy
use around 200 MeV. This means the proton stream
coming out of our ghost busting
backpack would go 35 cm. So the ghost would have to be
right in front of you. And, since it uses
such a small amount of energy you wouldn’t have to worry
about things like excess heat
or radiation being produced by it. Also, you wouldn’t actually
see the proton stream
when it was firing like you do in the film, because they aren’t hitting
anything that makes them
visible. I mean, think of a laser beam. The beam itself is invisible
unless it’s going through
something like smoke or water. Do we fix that?
– No. (power surging) (alarm blaring) (computerized voice):
Containment grid
powering down.
Containment grid
powering down.
Containment grid
powering down.
(metal rattling) (power surging) (explosion) (coughing) (Jake): The flowers
are still standing. (eerie music) (demonic voice):
I will rain terror down
upon your land and you will be powerless
to stop it. – I think he’s possessed.
– Mmm… (demonic voice):
Your destruction
will be of your own choosing. Whatever you think of
will come to life and be your end! – Kevin? Hey. (Jake): Whatever you think of
will be your end?
What does that mean? Wait! Nobody think of anything.
Don’t think of anything! (demonic voice):
The choice has been made! Your world will be destroyed!
(Jake): Whoa! Whoa! Nobody chose anything!
Did you chose anything? Did you chose anything?
I didn’t chose anything. – I couldn’t help it.
I tried to think of the least
threatening thing. (explosion) (stomping, sirens wailing) (intense music) – Kevin? What did you think of? – A giant marshmallow
Captain Disillusion. (intense music, stomping) Hey, team? I’m really sorry
about this. It looks pretty bad. – But is it? How deadly can a 34.3 meter
creature actually be? – Great question! And to answer it,
we’ve built a to-scale
pneumatic foot to simulate the pressure
exerted by
a giant marshmallow creature applied to our to-scale
city street. A 34.3 meter tall creature
would be the same height
as a 13 story building, and would weight
203 metric tons. about 22 tons more
than a blue whale, the largest animal
currently alive. And you might imagine
that something
with that much mass walking on the ground
would do this. (dramatic classical music) But, it wouldn’t. Instead, it looks more
like this. Even though its mass,
its weight is extremely high, it’s being distributed across
a large surface area: Our marshmallow creature’s
foot, which is around
the size of a car. While the pavement does
flex a bit, it doesn’t break.
And the damage becomes
even less with the marshmallow
added to the foot. The marshmallow acts
as a giant pillow, reducing the pressure
so much that it probably
wouldn’t even crush you. However, like this dude, you would be absorbed
into the marshmallow
and suffocate. But what if we kept the same
mass and lessened
the surface area to say, the size of a human’s foot? By decreasing the surface area
but retaining the mass, each footstep becomes more
destructive. Why? Well, think about
trying to penetrate an orange
with the flat side of a fork, versus its tines. Scale that up
to a 34.3 meter human, and we get this: We can see the car get squashed,
but also the concrete around it
crack and break. So, surprisingly, a giant
marshmallow creature wouldn’t be that devastating. Definitely not as damaging
as a giant human would be. – Cool science, dude.
– Thank you. – Hey, good thing I thought
of a giant marshmallow thing instead of a giant human, huh? – Yeah, I mean,
it would’ve been better
if you’d thought of nothing, but hey, silver lining, bud. – Guys?
Where’s Captain Disillusion? – Ah. I mean, I guess
he disappeared, so that’s good. (intense music) Oh. Alright, we should
fire all our beams at it
at once, right? But we don’t want
to cross the streams. – No, that’s actually
just in the movies. Three streams separate
is the same protonic energy
as three combined. So, if our proton streams
are only 5 mega electron volts
each, then when we combine them
they’ll generate a stream
of only 15 MeV. Crossing them
doesn’t multiply the effect. – But what about
total protonic reversal? – Again, just in the movies. – Speaking of movies… Greetings, corporeal beings. I’m not always 34 meters tall
but when I am, the square cube law
increases my volume more than the cross section
of my muscles, and I collapse. (shouting, thudding) So, how do you fake
a building-sized ghost
of a corporate mascot in the era before digital
compositing? Well, you make a miniature
in the form of a guy in a suit, and place him
into an even smaller miniature
of a street, complete with realistic
buildings, trees,
and even model cars, pulled on strings
by every available member
of the visual effects crew. But no matter how realistic
it all looks, it’s not enough. It takes an instant
for this 1/24th scale Ecto-1
to drop a few centimeters, but for a real car,
this would constitute
several meters. to cover that distance
at the same speed
takes more time. We can’t simulate this
by simply slowing down
the footage. The temporal information
between frames
just isn’t there. But, by filming
at a higher frame rate
than we play back, we can effectively alter
the scale of time itself to match the scale
of our miniatures. Raising the frame rate
in camera like this
is called “overcranking”. In fact, there’s a handy formula
for figuring out exactly
how much to overcrank. You take the final playback
frame rate, and multiply it
by the square root
of the model’s scale, well, the larger number
in the ratio
of the model’s scale. You know what?
Don’t worry about it. The Stay Puft
Marshmallow Man shots
in Ghostbusters were overcranked
at 72 frames per second. Not because it was physically
accurate, but because that’s what looked
good to the filmmakers. In the end, that’s all
that really matters. (sighs): I love him.
– Me too. – And that’s what I call
movie magic. – Fire it up!
– Oh. (intense music, guns powering) Roast him!
(electricity zapping) – This would be a lot easier
if we could actually see
the proton stream. – This is true.
And it would also look
a lot cooler. But in the real world,
you wouldn’t. But thankfully,
we’re not in the real world. (groaning) Thanks VFX artist! (electricity crackling) (roaring, explosion) (police sirens) – We did it! We saved the city!
– Ah… mother puss bucket! One thing that I should’ve
mentioned earlier is that the most dangerous part
of a marshmallow creature is when the marshmallow
explodes, because in the movie
Ghostbusters when they do it, there are some chunks
of marshmallow, but most of it is now
liquid marshmallow, which turns into a liquid
between 112 to 116
degrees Celsius. And if that landed on you,
it would do this… Since we can’t pour
molten marshmallow
on a human, we’re going to use
the flesh side
of a pork shoulder to see what happens. Once that molten marshmallow
hits your skin, you would instantaneously
receive third degree burns anywhere your bare flesh
made contact. It’s actually hard to see
in this shot just how hot it is. Oh. That’s better. And because the marshmallow
is so viscous, so slow-moving, it is on your skin
for much longer than something
like boiling water. So it would continue
to burn you. We can actually see here
where it started to cook
the meat of our test subject. Yeah. So not great. – According to my calculations, there are now 203 metric tons
of marshmallow
falling from the sky, which will completely crush
anything it lands on. – This won’t end up
like the Mad Max episode,
right? – Oh no, of course not. We’re going to come up
with a much more creative way
to end this one. (intense music)
And, as always… (all): Thanks for watching. – Oh. That wasn’t too bad. (Narrator):Coming Soon!(grunting) The punch would go right
through you
and the result is devastating. (Jake): How does venom kill you? Welcome to the party pal! Oh! The effects of jumping 10 meters
with a fire hose tied around your waist are rather
devastating. – Ahh!
– Oh! What is that?! – No!

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