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100 thoughts on “5. Molecular Genetics II

  • I took genetics in 1969 as a psychology undergraduate. The professor was emphatic about the Central Dogma. It was a new idea at the time. I remember Sister Fidelis in the fourth grade also preaching dogma – in this case about the Trinity.

    I resisted both.

  • Eyes separately evolved at least three times.
    You can see variably receptive eyes in mollusks, from dark/light to extremely useful squid and octopus eyes.

    Catastrophism was a word used in geology, which certainly affects punctuation of evolution – 6 great extinctions, with many.
    lesser ones some coming close to those arbitrarily defined 6.

    Continuing a bottleneck causes some trends, like homozygosity, to end up in extinction. Humans right now are extending bottlenecks in large carnivores, through direct persecution as well as through habitat destruction.

  • prof. Sapolsky may be incorrect in teaching that the second position in groupings of 3 amino acids in DNA coding sequences can often be changed (a SNP) without adverse consequence. All other courses I have encountered teach that this true of third position. What a brain! What a course! Remarkable!

  • 43.49 So that your body does not eat the baby by lowering down the immune system hahaha =X love these videos so far

  • Just one thing I don't understand, –  EVERYTHING!          Mike Fuller   Poetry and Music Fan. Very Amateur Artist.

  • voici l'image du renard que nous n'avons pu voir lors de son exposé.é_domestiqué#/media/File:Silberfuchs_08.jpg

  • A later lecture argues that schizophrenia may be an auto-immune disease. I know of a case where the symptoms of this disease slowly lapsed during pregnancy but quickly returned after birth. I wonder if there are studies of this phenomenon?

  • I love these lectures. My mom had lupus and she was told not to have anymore children before she got preggers with me. Because of the medication she was on I have had a lot of medical issues.

  • This is not a good summary of the gradualism/punctuated equilibrium rivalry. Cheetahs, nor any similar example, are not evidence of punctuated equilibrium acting in contrast to gradualism. Punctuated equilibrium, to the extent that Gould's theory was right, is merely a different description of gradualism. Look at all the known examples of even single point mutation giving an organism a massive and immediate reproductive advantage.

    A significant gradual mutation would quickly spread, as organisms compete most rigorously with the organisms that are most CLOSELY related to them. In a geologically small amount of time even single point mutations have completely taken over species via natural selection.

    The real controversy was not the acceptance of the general idea of punctuated equilibrium, but Gould's near dismissal of the role of adaptive evolution, particularly the idea that humans may have evolved any particular trait for a reason. The Marxist assumption of constructionism was the root of the controversy.

  • I finally lost my old religious way of thinking after this. I see so differently now, my "tolerance for ambiguity" shot up. I don't see the world so black and white anymore. Not enlighhtened but humble.

  • Vertically integrated resonance sequences in patterns of ground-state pulsed stability…, or, natural selection of which some has "favourable" evolutionary results, chemically, at every possible rate and scale, but focussed at a particular set of time duration states for life. WYSIWYG in an infinitely complex Information spectrum of the Quantum Fields Mechanism in Temporal Superposition. (?)

  • Question: how does the environment recognise the duplicated gene as the one which can consistently be experimented with?

  • Monogmus and polygamy genes.. cheating genes? Interesting I actually know of family lines that are typically all cheaters that’s actually interesting

  • I so badly wanted to see what that fox turned into but the picture is not available here… guess I will look into that with Google Fu.

  • I've heard someone say that the difference between Macro and Micro evolution was mostly centered around Intelligent Design. Knowing something about that debate and listening to this talk in context, it now seems more likely that the terminology comes from gradualism vs punctuated equilibrium, which ID followers used as a way to try and debunk evolution on the whole.

  • Is there a way we can see the tattoo, that the professor mentioned at the beginning of the class?

  • If you want to see the silver foxes at the end of this lecture.

  • thx cirlot micro meso macro cosmology sounds true niels bhor wolfgang pauli 'toppe top' pineal pine cone the spinning top manly p hall man grand symbol of the mysteries endocrinology . up down top bottom strange charm elementary particle leptons elementary particle chart physcics azygous azymous Azrael really bombastic god bless azoth azoth~! humpty dumpty alice chalice Charlie Dodgson mathematician embryology

  • Wow. So much information, and to think I'm still only skimming the surface. Wish I had the time and brain power to binge these all back to back.

  • While immune system differences between humans and chimps is "gradual" in the big picture, it's still radical change at the cellular level that makes the difference no? Isn't it caused by reaction to the disease, no?

  • at 49:00 he talks about how extra copies of genes allow for more "experimentation" leading to innovations and evolution. Anybody know where I can learn more on this topic? Sounds interesting!

  • 1:08:24 this is the only study he mentioned that i know anything about.
    and he's totally exaggerating! yeah the foxes aren't aggressive, but they will not give you very much attention, they mostly ignore you

  • I believe this is a picture of the domesticated foxes he mentions in the latter part of the lecture (he does use the adjective "piebald" which describes this fox) –

  • So do the transposable elements actually operate in vivo? Like different cells of mine will now have different sequences of dna?

  • when talking about punctuated equilibrium and paleontology, how on earth does he not mention climate shifts. it seems absolutely absurd to me. Gradualism vs punctuated equilibrium is such a stupid fucking argument. Theres clearly both going on… as well as catastrophism

  • Speaking of being mocked by the public: Here is my latest Theory Of Everything idea along with the associated test for what I believe 'gravity' truly is. The gravity test would need to be done to prove or disprove that portion of the TOE, and the gravity test will speak for itself. It will either be true or it will not be true. Here is a copy and paste from my files:

    Revised TOE: 3/25/2017a.
    My Current TOE:

    1. Modern science currently recognizes four forces of nature: The strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, gravity, and electromagnetism.
    2. In school we are taught that with magnetism, opposite polarities attract and like polarities repel. But inside the arc of a large horseshoe magnet it's the other way around, like polarities attract and opposite polarities repel. (I have proved this to myself with magnets and anybody with a large horseshoe magnet and two smaller bar magnets can easily prove this to yourself too. It occurs at the outer end of the inner arc of the horseshoe magnet.).
    3. Charged particles have an associated magnetic field with them.
    4. Protons and electrons are charged particles and have their associated magnetic fields with them.
    5. Photons also have both an electric and a magnetic component to them.

    6. When an electron is in close proximity to the nucleus, it would basically generate a 360 degree spherical magnetic field.
    7. Like charged protons would stick together inside of this magnetic field, while simultaneously repelling opposite charged electrons inside this magnetic field, while simultaneously attracting the opposite charged electrons across the inner portion of the electron's moving magnetic field.
    8. There are probably no such thing as "gluons" in actual reality.
    9. The strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force are probably derivatives of the electro-magnetic field interactions between electrons and protons.
    10. The nucleus is probably an electro-magnetic field boundary.
    11. Quarks also supposedly have a charge to them and then would also most likely have electro-magnetic fields associated with them, possibly a different arrangement for each of the six different type of quarks.
    12. The interactions between the quarks EM forces are how and why protons and neutrons formulate as well as how and why protons and neutrons stay inside of the nucleus and do not just pass through as neutrinos do.

    13. Personally, I currently believe that the directional force in photons is "gravity". It's the force that makes the sine wave of EM energy go from a wide (maximum extension) to a point (minimum extension) of a moving photon and acts 90 degrees to the EM forces which act 90 degrees to each other. When the EM gets to maximum extension, "gravity" flips and EM goes to minimum, then "gravity" flips and goes back to maximum, etc, etc. A stationary photon would pulse from it's maximum extension to a point possibly even too small to detect, then back to maximum, etc, etc.
    14. I also believe that a pulsating, swirling singularity (which is basically a pulsating, swirling 'gem' photon) is the energy unit in this universe.
    15. When these pulsating, swirling energy units interact with other energy units, they tangle together and can interlock at times. Various shapes (strings, spheres, whatever) might be formed, which then create sub-atomic material, atoms, molecules, and everything in existence in this universe.
    16. When the energy units unite and interlock together they would tend to stabilize and vibrate.
    17. I believe there is probably a Photonic Theory Of The Atomic Structure.
    18. Everything is basically "light" (photons) in a universe entirely filled with "light" (photons).

    19. When the electron with it's associated magnetic field goes around the proton with it's associated magnetic field, internal and external energy oscillations are set up.
    20. When more than one atom is involved, and these energy frequencies align, they add together, specifically the magnetic field frequency.
    21. I currently believe that this is where a line of flux originates from, aligned magnetic field frequencies.

    22. The Earth can be looked at as being a massive singular interacting photon with it's magnetic field, electrical surface field, and gravity, all three photonic forces all being 90 degrees from each other.
    23. The flat spiral galaxy can be looked at as being a massive singular interacting photon with it's magnetic fields on each side of the plane of matter, the electrical field along the plane of matter, and gravity being directed towards the galactic center's black hole where the gravitational forces would meet, all three photonic forces all being 90 degrees from each other.
    24. As below in the singularity, as above in the galaxy and probably universe as well.
    25. I believe there are only two forces of nature, Gravity and EM, (GEM). Due to the stability of the GEM with the energy unit, this is also why the forces of nature haven't evolved by now. Of which with the current theory of understanding, how come the forces of nature haven't evolved by now since the original conditions acting upon the singularity aren't acting upon them like they originally were, billions of years have supposedly elapsed, in a universe that continues to expand and cool, with energy that could not be created nor destroyed would be getting less and less dense? My theory would seem to make more sense if in fact it is really true. I really wonder if it is in fact really true.
    26. And the universe would be expanding due to these pulsating and interacting energy units and would also allow galaxies to collide, of which, how could galaxies ever collide if they are all speeding away from each other like is currently taught?

    27. As I as well as all of humanity truly do not know what we do not know, the above certainly could be wrong. It would have to be proved or disproved to know for more certainty.


    Here is the test for the 'gravity' portion of my TOE idea. I do not have the necessary resources to do the test but maybe you or someone else reading this does, will do the test, then tell the world what is found out either way.

    a. Imagine a 12 hour clock.
    b. Put a magnetic field across from the 3 to 9 o'clock positions.
    c. Put an electric field across from the 6 to 12 o'clock positions.
    (The magnetic field and electric field would be 90 degrees to each other and should be polarized so as to complement each other.)
    d. Shoot a high powered laser through the center of the clock at 90 degrees to the em fields.
    e. Do this with the em fields on and off.
    (The em fields could be varied in size, strength, density and depth. The intent would be to energy frequency match the laser and em fields for optimal results.)
    f. Look for any gravitational / anti-gravitational effects.
    (Including the utilization of ferro cells so as to be able to actually see the energy field movements.)

    (An alternative to the above would be to shoot 3 high powered lasers, or a single high powered laser split into 3 beams, each adjustable to achieve the above set up, all focused upon a single point in space.)

    'If' effects are noted, 'then' further research could be done.
    'If' effects are not noted, 'then' my latest TOE idea is wrong. But still, we would know what 'gravity' was not, which is still something in the scientific world. Science still wins either way and moves forward.

  • If half developed features emerge only when sufficiently developed, what is the mechanism for figuring out how to continue the development when there is no testing against the real world?

  • I thought the term was "punctuated evolution" but good to hear better thinking in these areas
    But never forget gene for big govt and cortisol aid in stupidity

  • The moment, when you start seeing lectures as a kind of entertainment-> Change the way you see "the World even more different". I love his lectures thx for giving us access, i am very gratefull

  • Can we do the tame Experiment with Wolves?
    Naturally it already happened but.. what if we can introduce more variability so that current breeds have less genetic problems?

  • So, my question. What tissue do command genes come from, in development of diffrent systems of the body? For instance, i know in early development of embryo into fetus, diffrent systems of the body form. How would your body know to make a hand? I guess i already answered my question, this must be in the realm of stem cells. So the begining cells have the information to structually form, the skeletal system, nerves, blood vessels. Once osteophytes are pressent in formation somehow, its apparent to them to form a limb? In sequence and afterwords the gene is turned off in (formational) terms. Yet the development isnt where it grows in size based on tissue from growth plates.

  • paused this course on youtube for about 2 months. but just today i read in a book about the same topic i now see here (increasing rates of illnesses linked to westernized diet). i like when some threads of thoughkt come together to make even more sense in a more clear way.

  • It starts with complex then gets more complex and only keeps showing newer and newer levels of complexity. I love this!

  • For all the worst shitty things the Internet does now, I'm so glad there still is this sort of things too.
    I didn't finished my biology university years, went strait down to depression and shitty jobs to more depression and slightly better shitty jobs to complete burnout. Eh, life…
    About 10 years later, today, after all those struggles. I find myself still competent enough to understand everything. Be captivated by this awesome course. Gives me just a bit of hope.
    Just a bit of hope and confidence that I still can. That I'll find my way.
    This sort of gift has no price.

  • The part with the jumping genes and the random splicing made my hearth work excessively from scientific excitement.

  • How about punctual change being defined by long periods of numerous insignificant mutations, which may be an essential precursor for priming/prepping an organism for the later significant mutation, which, once 'activated' gives the significant change "package" and genetic fitness to change the population to the next valence level. …gradual?

  • Unfortunately comes nowhere near to understanding consciousness but fascinating none the less.

  • Does it all mean that our inclination to certain behaviours so often linked to our development might be a result of genes being in some way controled by external environment ? Or that lenght of time would not make a difference in this case ?

  • Thanks to youtube I can do things I would never imagine doing years ago: cleaning my room while listening to a lecture by a highly respected university professor.

  • So interesting to hear about copy number variants as having almost a shadow pair that can be rebellious and experiment away, with the sibling being sensible and keeping the lights turned on. His explanations are so original and interesting.

  • I'd like to read the books he reccomended for this course, but I can't remember.
    Does anyone know? There were two, I think.

  • That Soviet geneticist mentioned at 1:06:13 actually had a name, which is Dmitry Belyaev. It's so sad that prof.Sapolsky didn't find it necessary to mention.

  • This series is a prime example of what the Internet should be used for. Only concern I have is whether or not the material has aged well/ is still scientifically correct or relevant

  • I've read tons of the comments, and I thought it was weird to want to be this guy's son or dad, I'd be proud either way, and It doesn't seem so unusual anymore.

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